WORLD OF SPICES

WORLD OF SPICES

World of Spices is enriched with the herbs and spices that are available easily. They definitely enhance the dishes.

70 Most Popular Herbs and Spices

Though we travel the world over to find the beautiful, we must carry it with us or we find it not. -Ralph Waldo Emerson

Around the world many herb and spice are used most commonly in culinary to induce a specific flavor, to enrich a flavor, or to complement a preparation. Herbs are small plants and usually their leaves, fresh or dried, are used in cooking. Spices can be any part of the plant, like root, stem, leaves, flower, fruit, seeds that are used in cooking for flavor or to increase health quotient. Herbs and spices are also used for medicinal purposes, for cosmetics or for fragrances. Specific herbs and spices are considered sacred and are used for spiritual rituals in many religions.

Some examples of spices from different parts of plants are as follows:
Root, like garlic
Stem, like ginger
Bark, like cinnamon
Resin, like asafoetida
Twig, like rosemary
Leaf, like bay leaf
Flower bud, like clove
Flower stigma, like saffron
Fruit, like cardamom
Aril, like nutmeg
Seed, like mustard

There are good examples where plants are used as both herb and spice like coriander leaves and coriander seeds. Occasionally there are some plants are used as vegetable, herb as well as spice like onion, spring onion and onion seeds.

India is one of the largest consumer and producers of spices in the world. In fact, India is the world’s largest producer of saffron, cumin, chilli, ginger, and turmeric. Saffron is the world’s most expensive spice. There are more 11 essential spices or 5 essential herbs in India. Ayurveda used many medicinal herbs and spices. It has found medicinal and remedial values in numerous herbs and spices. Indian culinary from each region has a list of favorite spice and favorite herbs.

USA and Canada use a list of common place and best herbs and spices to flavor meat, and to create a variety of breads, confectionary and beverages. Many prepare a kitchen garden to get a fresh supply of herbs. France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal and other European countries are huge consumers of herbs and spices. Middle Eastern countries have a luxurious list of essential herbs and spices including those used in Indian sub-continent as well as Mediterranean. Asian countries like Japan, China, Thai, Vietnam and Myanmar add taste to their food using various types of rich herbs and spices.

As Shannon L. Alder said, “There is no perfection, only beautiful versions of brokenness.” Each country caters to not just top 11 spices or best 5 herbs. They have a long list of essential herbs and spices with brilliant and splendid names.

Some of the commonly used herbs and spices are as follows with scientific name. We are presenting 70 most popular herbs and spices with names in many languages. A brief overview is presented with each to understand its characteristics, advantages and usage of herb and spice.

Let us know in the comments below if you would like to recommend addition of any more herbs and spices to this list.

 

1.  Allspice (Pimenta dioica)

Arabic : Bahar, Bhar hub wa na im
Danish : Allehande
Dutch : Jamaica pepper, piment
English : Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimento, newspice
Estonian : Harilik pimwnsipuu, Vurts
Finnish : Maustepippuri
French : Piment. Piment Jamaique, Poivre aromatique, toute-epice, poivre de la Jamaique
German : Piment Neugewurz, Allgewurz, Nelkenpeffer, Jamaicapfeffer, Englisches Gewurz
Hungarian : Jamaikai szegfubors, Szegfubors, Pimento, Amomummag
Icelandic : Allrahanda
Italian : Pimento, pepe di Giamaica
Kannada : Gandamenasu
Malayalam : Sarvasugandhi
Norwegian : Allehande
Polish : Ziele angielskie
Portuguese : Pimenta da Jamaica
Russian : Yamaiskiy pjerets
Spanish : Pimienta de Jamaica, Pimienta gorda
Swedish : Kryddpeppar
Tamil : Sarvasukanthi
Turkish : Yeni bahar

A spice in form of a powder made from the dark, round and small fruit of a tropical tree for extra flavor. Allspice flavor is close to combination of cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and pepper and thus sometimes considered their substitute. Allspice powder or whole allspice berries is used both in cooking and in baking usually at the beginning; and whole allspice berries are sometimes removed after cooking. Ground allspice is used for seasoning meat, soup, stew and vegetables.

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2.  Asafetida (Ferula assa-foetida)

Arabic : Tyib, Haltheeth
Bengali : Hing
English : Devil’s dung
French : Ferule Asafoetida
German : Stinkendes steckenkraut
Gujarati : Hing
Hindi : Hing
Kannada : Hinger,Ingu
Kashmiri : Yang, Sap
Malayalam : Kayam
Marathi : Hing
Oriya : Hengu
Persian : Angustha-Gandha
Punjabi : Hing
Sanskrit : Badhika, Agudagandhu
Sinhalese : Perumkayam
Tamil : Perungayam
Telugu : Inguva, Ingumo
Urdu : Hing

A spice that is pale brown resin with a strong smell and is stored in sealed containers or small bottles. This gum resin has multiple uses in cooking and medicinal benefits. It is used to flavor gourmet food usually at the beginning of the cooking as well as to preserve food.

3.  Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

Arabic : Raihan
Assamese : Tulasii
Bengali : Babui tulsi
Chinese : Lo-le
Dutch : Basilicum
English : Sweet Basil
French : Basilic
German : Basilienkraut
Gujarati : Sabje
Hindi : Bawari bawari,Ban thulasi, Tulsi
Italian : Basilico
Japanese : Meboki
Kannada : Amli, Huli
Malayalam : Pachcha/sivatulasi
Marathi : Sabja/Tulasa
Oriya : durlabha
Portuguese : Manjericao
Punjabi : Imli, Tulasigidda,Tulasi
Russian : Basilik
Sanskrit : Barbari,Bana thulasi,Tungi
Spanish : Alba Laca
Swedish : Basilkort
Tamil :Tulasi,Tirunirrippachai
Telugu : Tulsi-chettu
Thai : Horapa,Horapha
Urdu : Imli

An herb whose leaves are used in fresh or dried form. It tastes a little sweet and is used in cuisines worldwide. In Italian cuisine it forms the base of pesto sauce and enriches flavor of salads, pasta, pizza, and other dishes. Basil leaves are used in tea, seasoning and Ayurvedic medicines. It is said to fight infection and boost immunity. The basil plant is considered holy by Hindus.

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4. Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis)

Arabic : Ghar
Bengali : Tejpata
Burmese : Thitchabo
Chinese : Chai gui, Yuch-kuei
Dutch : Laurier
English : Sweet laurel, Bayleaf
French : Laurier, Laurier desIndes
German : Indisches Lorbeerblatt, Lorbeer
Gujarati : Tamalapatra
Hindi : Tejpat
Italian : Alloro
Japanese : Gekkeiju, Tamara-nikkei Tezipatto
Kashmiri : Tejpata
Malayalam : Tamalapatram
Marathi : Darchini
Portuguese : Loureiro
Punjabi : Tejpat
Russian : Laur, Malabarskaya korista
Sanskrit : Tamalaka (Tejpatra)
Spanish : Laurel
Swedish : Lager
Tamil : Talishappattiri
Telugu : Talisapatri
Urdu : Tejpat

A spice that is often a dried leaf of about 4-5 inch long. It was used by ancient Greeks and is part of many European cuisines. Bay leaves decoction to bathwater (boiling bay leaves for 5 minutes) is said to relieve sore muscles and rejuvenate the body. Bay leaves is considered natural bug repellent. Bay leaves’ smoke when inhaled is supposed to calm the body and mind and release stress.

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5. Bishop’s Weed (Aegopodium podagraria)

Arabic : Kamme Muluki
Bengali : Jowan or Joan
Gujarati : Yavan
Hindi : Ajwain
Kannada : Oma
Kashmiri : Jawind
Latin : Trachy Spermum Ammi
Malayalam : Omum
Marathi : Onva
Oriya : Juani
Persian : Zinian, Nankhwah
Punjabi : Ajamoda, Avanika
Sanskrit : Ajamoda, Avanika
Tamil : Omum
Telugu : Vamu
Urdu : Ajowain

It’s a spice used for culinary and medicines – Ayurvedic and Unani. Bishop’s Weed was used by Romans as food staple. It is used in pickle preparations. The “seed” (the fruit) is supposed to cure numerous diseases in humans and animals. In India, traditionally it is used as a digestive aid. It is often consumed after a heavy meal with a little black salt.

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6. Black pepper (Piper nigrum)

Arabic : Filfil Aswad
Bengali Kala morich, golmorich
Chinese : Hu-Chiao
Dutch : Peper
French : Poivre
German : Pfeffer
Gujarati Kalamari, kalomirich
Hindi Kali mirch
Italian : Pepe
Japanese : Kosha
Kannada Kare menasu
Kashmiri Marutis
Malayalam Kurumulaku, nallamulaku
Marathi Mira, kali mirch
Oriya Gol maricha
Portuguese : Pimenta
Punjabi Kali mirch
Russian : Pyerets
Sanskrit Marich ushna, hapusha
Spanish : Pimienta
Swedish : Peppar
Tamil Milagu
Telugu Miriyala tige
Urdu Kali mirch, Siah mirch

Black pepper is a spice with small black round fruits used as whole or in powdered form or in semi-crushed form. It is used as a spice or seasoning when dried to give strong flavor. Pepper spice is available in red, green and white color besides the most commonly used black color. Black pepper has plenty of medicinal benefits.

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7. Borage (Borago officinalis)

Arabic: Lisaan ath-Thaur
Chinese: Liu li ju
Dutch: Bernagie
French: Bourrache officinale
German: Boretsch
Hindi: Borage
Italian: borraggine
Japanese: rurijisa
Kannada: Doddapatre
Malayalam: Panikoorkka
Portuguese: Borragem
Russian: oguréčnik aptéčnyj, buráčnik
Spanish: Borraja
Swedish: Gurkört
Tamil: akumpai
Telugu: Guvvagutti
Thai: Borage

An herb with rough leaves and blue flowers consumed raw as salad greens or are cooked like spinach. Borage seeds are used to make Borage oil. As per some studies, Borage oil benefits skin, wrinkles, hair, arthritis and inflammation among other benefits.

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8. Cambodge (Garcinia cambogia)

Chinese : Guan-mu
Dutch : Geelihars
English : Malabar tamarind
French : Gamboge
German : Gummiguttbaum
Hindi : Goraka
Malayalam : Kodampuli
Sanskrit : Vrikshamala

Cambodge is a tropical fruit commonly known as ‘Malabar Tamarind’. Its berry is of the size of an apple and yellow or red in color forming tough skin or rind. The dried skin of the berries is used to flavor curries. In Sri Lanka the dried skin with salt is used for curing fish. The rind is widely used in anti-obesity drugs.

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9. Caper (Capparis spinosa)

Arabic : Kaber/Lussef
Egypt : Caperberry
French : Capre
German : Kaper
Greek : Kappari
Hindi : Kabra
Italian : Cappero
Kannada :Mullukattari
Marathi :Kabur
Punjabi :Kaur,Barar
Spanish : Alcaparra
Telugu :Kokilakshamu

Caper flower buds, semi mature fruits and young shoots with small leaves are used as a spice. It gives flavor, aroma and base to pasta sauces, pizza, fish, meats and salads. Caper berries are said to benefit liver function and used as diuretic and tonics. Caper extracts and pulp are used in cosmetics.

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10. Caraway (Carum carvi)

Arabic : Karaway
Bengali : Jira or Zira
Chinese : Fang Feng
Dutch : Karwif
French : Grainsde Carvi
Greek : Karo
Hindi : Siya zira or Shia zira
Italian : Caro
Kannada : Shime jeerige
Kashmiri : Gunyun
Malayalam : Shima jirakam
Marathi : Vilaiti zirah
Punjabi : Zira-siah
Sanskrit : Sushavi
Sindhi : Kalu Duru
Tamil : Shimai shambu
Telugu : Sima jirakai

A spice whose seeds used in cooking, breads, cakes or as seasoning. Caraway is also known as meridian fennel, Shahi Jeera and Persian cumin as they look similar. Some people consider Caraway as a better form of cumin seeds, however, their flavors are different. Caraway seeds have a strong aromatic flavor whereas cumin is milder.

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11. Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia Blume)

Arabic : Darasini
Chinese : Gui pi/Gui
Dutch : Kassia
French : Cannelle de cochinchine
German : Kassie
Gujarati :Tajj
Hindi :Jangli dalchini
Italian : Cassia
Japanese : Bokei
Malayalam:Ilavangum,vayana
Sanskrit :Sthulatvak
Spanish : Canela de la China
Swedish : Kassia
Tamil :Ilavangapattai
Telugu :Lavangapattai

Cinnamomum Cassia (Chinese cassia or Chinese Cinnamon) is a spice referring to the dried bark of cassia which is a small, bushy, ever green tree, and grey brown bark. Cassia bark has stronger flavor as compared to Cinnamon. Cassia dried twigs are used to make medicine. Cassia leaves are used to cure diabetes. Cassia essential oil is also called cassia cinnamon oil.

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12. Cardamom, Big (Elettaria cardamomum)

Bengali : Bara Elaichi
Chinese : Xiang Doukou
English : Black Cardamom, Nepal Cardamom
French : Cardamome noir
German : Nepal Cardamom
Hindi : Bara Elaichi
Malayalam : Perelam
Nepalese : Elaa
Punjabi : Bara Elaichi
Sanskrit : Brihadaela
Tamil : Periya yalam
Telugu : Peddayelaki
Urdu : Bara Elaichi

A spice, black or big cadamom is a fruit with black seeds with sweet flavor. It is used in biryani, curry powder, biscuits, sweets and medicines. Cardamom essential oil benefits include treatment against bad breath, digestive problems and more. Cardamom essential oil can scent the home and provide spiritual benefits.

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13. Cardamom, Small (Elettaria cardamomum Maton)

Arabic : Hal
Bengali : Chhoti elachi
Chinese : Pai-tou-k’ou
Dutch : Kardemom
French : Cardamome
German : Kardamom
Gujarati : Elaychi
Hindi : Chhoti elaichi
Italian : Cardamomo
Japanese : Karudamon
Kannada : Yelakki
Kashmiri : Aa lbuduaa l
Malayalam : Elathari
Marathi : Velchil
Oriya : Alaichi
Portuguese : Cardamomo
Punjabi : Elaychi
Russian : Kardamon
Sanskrit : Ela
Spanish : Cardamomo
Swedish : Kardemumma
Tamil : Yelakkai or Elakkai
Telugu : Yealak-Kayulu or Elakkayi
Urdu : Ilaychi

A spice, small or green cardamom is a fruit with black seeds with sweet flavor. Green cardamom is used in cooking gourmet food, tea, confectionaries and sweets for flavor and aroma. Cardamom is said to provide physical, mental, emotional and spiritual benefits. Cardamom is readily used in medicines and is its use is supposed to calm frustration and anger. According to some, cardamom oil brings insight and wisdom to the soul.

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14. Cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum)

Arabic : Filfil Ahmar
Bengali : Lanka, Lankamorich
British : Chillies(Hot) Pepper(Sweet)
Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao
Dutch : Spaanse Peper
French : Puvre de Guinee
German : Paprika
Gujarati : Marcha
Hindi : Lal mirch
Italian : Peperone
Japanese : Togarashi
Kannada : Mensina kai
Malayalam : Mulaku
Marathi : Mirchi
Oriya : Lanka
Portuguese : Pimento
Punjabi : Lalmirch
Russian : Struchkovy pyeret
Spanish : Pimenton
Tamil : Milagay
Telugu : Mirapa kaya
Urdu : Lalmirch

Cayenne pepper is a spice from fruits of species of chilli. It is used to enhance the flavor of savory dishes, and its nutritional value provides health benefits. This red pepper usually comes in powder form and has a strong flavor to make food spicy. Cayenne pepper made from the seeds of plants in the capsicum family like jalapeño and bell peppers.

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15. Celery seed (Apium graveolens, variety dulce)

Arabic : Karafs
Bengali : Bandhuri, Chanur
Chinese : Chin
Dutch : Selderij
French : Celeri
German : Sellerie
Gujarati : Bodiajmoda
Hindi : Shalari, Ajmud, Randhuni
Italian : Sedano
Japanese : Serorii
Malayalam : Ayamodakam
Marathi : Ajmoda
Portuguese : Apio
Punjabi : Kernauli
Russian : Syel’derey
Sanskrit : Ajmoda
Spanish : Aipo
Swedish : Selleri
Tamil : Ajmoda

Celery seeds are often used in cooking, to make pickles and to flavor food. Celery leaves and stalks are used as salads and in soups. However celery seeds come from a related plant called wild celery or smallage. Dried ripped fruit of celery is also used as spice to season meat, flavor beverages, confectionaries, ice creams and baked goods. Celery seeds are claimed to be natural medicine to benefit against asthma and liver diseases.

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16. Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium)

Arabic: albqduns al’iifrinjiu
Chinese: Shan luo bo
Dutch: Kervel
French: Cerfeuil
German: kërvele
Hindi: Kervil
Italian: Cerfoglio
Japanese: chābiru
Portuguese: cerefolho
Russian: kervél’
Spanish: cerefolio
Swedish: körvel

An herb is also called French Parsley and Garden Chervil. Chervil in Latin means “leaves of joy”. These leaves are one of the four major spices in France. Many grow chervil herb in their kitchen garden to get the fresh supply for salad, sauce like béarnaise, and dishes, especially egg dishes. Food lovers complement fish, seafood as well as vegetables with Chervil.

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17. Chili or Chilli (Capsicum species)

Arabic : Filfil Ahmar
Bengali : Lanka, Lankamorich
British : Chillies(Hot) Pepper(Sweet)
Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao
Dutch : Spaanse Peper
French : Puvre de Guinee
German : Paprika
Gujarati : Marcha
Hindi : Lal mirch
Italian : Peperone
Japanese : Togarashi
Kannada : Mensina kai
Malayalam : Mulaku
Marathi : Mirchi
Oriya : Lanka
Portuguese : Pimento
Punjabi : Lalmirch
Russian : Struchkovy pyeret
Spanish : Pimenton
Tamil : Milagay
Telugu : Mirapa kaya
Urdu : Lalmirch

A spice available as green chillies (fresh) or red chillies (semi-fresh or dried) used for a hot flavor. Chilli is used as powder called red chilli powder to give strong flavor to food. Diced or whole chilli are used to garnish food. They come in numerous varieties and have many names across regions. Some are mild and some are very strong. There are numerous recipes of chilli around Indian sub continental region alone.

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18. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)

Arabic: althawm almueamar
Chinese: Jiǔcài
Dutch: bieslook
French: ciboulette
German: Schnittlauch
Gujarati: Cā’ivsa
Hindi: chhivais
Italian: erba cipollina
Japanese: Chaibu
Kannada: Cīvs
Malayalam: civukaḷ
Marathi: Chives
Portuguese: cebolinha
Punjabi: Cā’īvaza
Russian: zelenyy luk
Spanish: cebollín
Swedish: gräslök

Chives is an herb with long thin leaves that look like spring onions. The taste of Chives is a little milder to that of onions with a hint of garlic. The entire chive from bulb to leaves is edible and it is grown as a kitchen garden herb. It is one of the four major or indispensable spices used in France.

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19. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

Arabic : Querfa
Bengali : Dalchini
Gujarati : Dalchini
Hindi : Dalchini, Darchini
Indonesia :Kayu manis
Kannada : Lavangapattai
Malayalam : Karuvapatta
Marathi : Dalchini
Oriya : Dalchini
Persian : Darchin
Punjabi : Dalchini
Sanskrit : Darushila
Sinhala : Kurundu
Tamil : Karuvapattai, Sannalavangapattai
Turkish : Tarcin
Urdu : Dalchini

Cinnamon is a spice from the bark of a tree. This brown bark is used in small sticks or as powder to give a special sweet aroma to savory food as well as sweet food like cinnamon apple pie. It is used in breakfast cereals, snackfoods and even tea. Its health benefits are linked to blood sugar and functioning of heart. Paste of cinnamon and honey can be effective in treating arthritis pain.

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20. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

Arabic : Kabsh ,Qarunfil
Bengali : Lawang
Chinese : Ding xiang
French : Clou de girofle
German : Nelke
Gujarati : Lavang
Hindi : Laung
Indonesian : Cengkeh
Kannada : Lavanga
Malayalam : Grambu
Marathi : Luvang
Oriya : Labang
Punjabi : Laung
Sanskrit : Lavanga
Tamil : Kirambu, Lavangam
Telugu : Lavangalu
Urdu : Laung

A spice referring to bud of flower which is small, brown and dry. Clove benefits may be seen in decoct water, smoke, in culinary and in medicines. Clove is used in innumerable recipes – savory or sweet. Cloves are popular constituent in toothpaste, ayurvedic medicines, and in home health remedies.

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21. Coriander or Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)

Arabic : Kuzhbare
Bengali : Dhana, Dhania
Chinese : Hu-sui
Dutch : Koriander
French : Corriandre
German : Koriander
Gujarati : Kothmiri, Libdhaba
Hindi : Dhania or Dhanya
Japanese : Koendoro
Kannada : Kothambri, Kothamiri bija
Kashmiri : Deaniwal, Kothambalari
Malayalam : Kothumpalari bija
Marathi : Dhana
Oriya : Dhania
Portuguese : Coentro
Punjabi : Dhania
Russian : Koriandr
Sanskrit : Dhanyaka
Spanish : Cilantro
Swedish : Koriander
Tamil : Kothamalli
Telugu : Dhaniyalu

Coriander (or Cilantro as it is called in USA) is a small plant whose leaves are used as herb and seeds which are small light brown balls are used as spice. It is known as Chinese parsley and is used to flavor dishes from various worldwide cuisines. Very regularly, Coriander is used to garnish dishes and to get fresh looks. Coriander leaves and coriander seeds have a list of health benefits.

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22. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum)

Arabic : Kammun
Bengali : Safaid jira or Zeera
Chinese : Machin
Dutch : Komijn
French : Cumin
German : Romischer Kummel
Gujarati : Jiru or Jeeru
Hindi : Jira, Jeera, Zira or Safaid jeera Or Zeera
Italian : Comino
Kannada : Jeeriege
Kashmiri : Zyur
Malayalam : Jeerakam
Marathi : Jeregire
Oriya : Jira, Jeera
Portuguese : Cominho
Russian : Kmin
Sanskrit : Jiraka, Jira
Sindhi : Zero
Spanish : Comino
Swedish : Spiskummin
Tamil : Ziragum or Jeeragam
Telugu : Jidakara, Jikaka

Cumin is a spice referring to small fruit or “seed” of brown color. Cumin has strong taste often used in savory cooking in whole seed form and in powder form of seed. Cumin is one of the essential spices of Indian, Mexican and Vietnam cuisine. Cumin is used in gourmet staple food based wheat flour or rice in Indian sub-continent. It is used in almost every Indian dish that there are dishes with the name of “Jeera”.

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23. Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii)

Assamese : Narsinghs, Bisharhari
Bengali : Barsanga, Kariphulli
Chinese : Ga lei yihp
Dutch : Kerriebladeren
English : Curry leaves
French : Feuilles de cari
German : Curryblatter
Gujarati : Goranimb, Kadhilimbdo
Hindi : Kathnim, Mitha neem, Curry patta or kurry patta, Gandhela, Bareanga
Kannada : Karibevu
Malayalam : Karriveppilei
Marathi : Karhinimb, Poospala, Gandla, Jhirang
Oriya : Barsan, Basango, Bhuraunga
Punjabi : Kadi patta
Sanskrit : Krishna nimba
Spanish : Hoja
Tamil : Karivempu, Karuveppilei
Telugu : Karepaku

Curry leaf refers to a herb that is essentially leaf of the curry tree. Mostly fresh curry leaves are used in many dishes in South Indian cuisines for spicy, strong piney-lemony aroma. Curry leaves are supposed to be packed with carbohydrates, fiber, calcium, phosphorous, irons and vitamins. Curry leaves provide many health benefits.

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24. Dill (Anethum graveolens)

Arabic : Shibith
Bengali : Sowa
Chinese : Shin-Lo
Dutch : Dille
French : Aneth
German : Dill
Gujarati : Surva
Hindi : Sowa
Italian : Aneto
Kannada : Sabasige
Kashmiri : Sor
Malayalam : Sathakuppa
Marathi : Surva, Shepu
Portuguese : Endro
Punjabi : Sowa
Russian : Ukrop
Sanskrit : Satapushpi
Spanish : Eneldo
Swedish : Dill
Tamil : Sathakuppi Sompa
Telugu : Sabasiege
Urdu : Sowa

Dill is a plant whose feathery green leaves and flat oval fruits or “seeds” are used in food. Dill stems and blossom heads are used for pickles. Dill is found in European and Asian cuisines. Dill leaves are commonly used in stew, soup and seasoning. Its oil is used in soaps and as aromatic essence. It is mostly grown in Eurasia.

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25. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)

Arabic : Shamar
Bengali : Pan, Muhiri, Mauri
Chinese : Hui-Hsiang
Dutch : Venkel
French : Fenouil
German : Fenchel
Gujarati : Variari
Hindi : Saunf, sonp
Italian : Finocchio
Japanese : Uikyo
Kannada : Badi-sopu
Malayalam : Perum jeerakam
Marathi : Badishep
Portuguese : Funcho
Punjabi : Saunf
Russian : Fyenkhel
Sanskrit : Madhurika
Spanish : Hinojo
Swedish : Fankal
Tamil : Shombei
Telugu : Sopu, Pedda-jilakara

Fennel is a herb with feathery leaves whose leaves and thin fruit or “seeds” are used for pickles, soups, meat dishes, sauces and confectionaries. Fennel leaves and fennel seeds have sweet taste and aroma. Fennel is commonly used in tea, mouth freshener, many medicines and home health remedies. Fennel is one of the most common herbs in Italy and Indian sub-continent.

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26. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

Arabic : Hulba
Bengali : Methe
Chinese : K’u – Tou
Dutch : Fenegriek
French : Fenugrec
German : Bockshorklee
Gujarati : Methe
Hindi : Methe
Italian : Fieno Greco
Japanese : Koroha
Kannada : Menthya
Malayalam : Ventayan, Uluva
Marathi : Methe
Oriya : Methe
Portuguese : Alforva
Punjabi : Methe
Russian : Pazhitnik
Sanskrit : Methe
Spanish : Alholva
Swedish : Bockshornklee
Tamil : Vendayam or Venthiyam
Telugu : Mentulu or Menthulu
Urdu : Methe

Fenugreek is a plant whose small seeds of yellow color are used as a spice. The fresh leaves of fenugreek are often used like spinach to make dishes. Dried leaves are used to flavor curry in Indian cuisines. It is considered good for blood sugar levels and for lactating mothers. Fenugreek is used in medicines and to hide the taste of other medicines.

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27. Filé or sassafras (Sassafras albidum)

Arabic: alsasafras
Chinese: Assa
Dutch: sassafras
French: sassafras
German: sassafras
Hindi: sassafras
Italian: sassafras
Japanese: sassafras
Portuguese: sassafras
Russian: sassafras
Spanish: sassafras
Swedish: sassafras

All parts of sassafras plants, including roots, stems, bark, twig leaves, flowers, and fruit are used for food, medicine, and fragrance. Sassafras tree is a tall tree mostly in eastern USA and eastern Asia. Sassafras spice is famous for its aroma. Sassafras paste is known as a poultice and is used to treat wounds and sores. Sassafras root bark was used to treat digestive issues.

By World of Spices

28. Garlic (Allium sativum)

Arabic : Thum
Assamese : Naharu
Bengali : Rashun
Chinese : Suan
Dutch : Knoflook
French : Ail
German : Knoblanch
Gujarati : Lasan
Hindi : Lasun, Lessan, Lahsun
Italian : Agilio
Japanese : Ninniku
Kannada : Bellulli
Kashmiri : Ruhan
Malayalam : Vellulli
Marathi : Lusson
Oriya : Rasuna
Portuguese : Alho
Punjabi : Lassan, Lasun
Russian : Chesnok
Sanskrit : Lashuna
Spanish : Ajo
Swedish : Vitlok
Tamil : Ullipundu, Vellaippundu
Telugu : Velluri
Urdu : Lassun, Leshun

Garlic is an herb when its leaves are used for cooking. Garlic is also a spice when cloves of its bulb are used for cooking and for medicine. Garlic is very common in many cuisines worldwide that fresh garlic, dried garlic powder, garlic paste and garlic oil are used to flavor foods. It is said to improve drive, immunity, heart functioning and blood system. April 19 is recognized as National Garlic Day in USA.

By World of Spices

29. Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Arabic : Zanjabil
Bengali : Ada
Chinese : Chiang
Dutch : Gember
French : Gingembre
German : Ingwer
Gujarati : Adu
Hindi : Adrak, Sonth
Italian : Zenzero
Japanese : Shoga
Kannada : Shunti, Ardraka
Malayalam : Inchi
Marathi : Ale
Oriya : Ada
Portuguese : Gengibre
Punjabi : Adrak, Sund
Russian : Imbir
Sanskrit : Ardraka
Spanish : Jengibre
Swedish : Ingefara
Tamil : Inji
Telugu : Allamu, Sonthi
Urdu : Adrak, Adhrak

Ginger is a spice referencing a light brown root (or rhizome) with thin skin and fibrous core. Ginger is very commonly used in food, sweets, pickles, tea and medicines as it is told to have benefits for both men and women. Ginger is called Adrak when fresh, and Sund when dried in Hindi. It is told to have anti-inflammatory benefits and can relieve nausea, gastrointestinal irritation and muscle pain. Many consider that juice of ginger and honey can treat cough.

By World of Spices

30. Greater Galanga (Alpinia galangal)

Arabic : Galangal
Chinese : Gou leuhng geung
Dutch : Grote galanga
English : Siamese ginger
French : Galanga,Souchet long
German : Galgant
Gujarati : Kolinjan
Hindi : Kulanjan, or bara Kulanjan
Indonesian : Laos
Kannada : Rasmi
Kannada: Sugandha vachi, Rasmi
Malayalam : Chittaratha,Kolingi
Malayalam: Chittaratha, Araatta, Perasatta, Kolingi
Marathi : Koshtkulinjan
Marathi: Baripankijar, Koshikulinjan
Sanskrit : Kulanjana
Tamil: Chittarattai, Sangandam Tittiram
Telugu: Peddumparashtram, Kachoramu
Thai : Dok kha
Urdu: Kulanjan
Vietnam : Rieng

Greater Galanga or Thai Ginger or Siamese Ginger is the dried rhizome which is deep orange to brown in color, aromatic, pungent and bitter. The aroma of Galanga is similar to lemon and taste is less peppery as compared to ginger. Fresh Galangal rhizome is a spice used in Asia-Pacific cuisines to transform an ordinary dish into a culinary treat. Galangal is also supposed to benefit against many diseases.

By World of Spices

31. Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)

Arabic: fajal harun
Bengali: Sajinā
Chinese: Là gēn
Dutch: Mierikswortel, Kreno
French: Raifort
German: Meerrettich, Kern
Gujarati: horsaraidish
Hindi: Sahijan
Italian: Rafano, Barbaforte
Japanese: Seiyouwasabi
Kannada: Mullaṅgi
Malayalam: niṟakaṇṇukaḷēāṭe
Marathi: horsaraidish
Portuguese: Rábano-silvestre
Russian: Khren
Spanish: Rábano picante
Swedish: Pepparrot
Tamil: Kutiraivāli
Telugu: Gurrapumullaṅgi
Thai: Phụ̄ch chnid h̄nụ̀ng

Horseradish is a hardy herb with large leaves and pungent root, which contain oil with strong pungent smell and biting taste. Horseradish is used as an appetizing spice. High in Vitamin ‘C’ leaves are used in salads and sandwiches. Grated root mixed with vinegar and salt is an appetizing spice and a pungent condiment to enhance the flavor of beef. It is also available as horseradish cream, sauce or relish.

By World of Spices

32. Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

Arabic: alzawfa
Bengali: Sugani dha latābiśēṣa
Chinese : Ngau sat chou
Dutch : Hyssop
French : Hysope
German : Eisop
Greek : Issopos
Gujarati: Hāyasōpa
Hindi : Zufah-yabis
Italian : Issopo
Kannada: Hisāp
Malayalam: hisēāpp
Marathi: Hāyasŏpa
Sanskrit : Jufa
Spanish : Hisopo
Tamil: Haicōp
Telugu: His’sōpu
Urdu : Zufah

Hyssop is an herb from the mint family whose leaves and flower are used in cooking, tea and medicine. Hyssop leaves are chopped and scattered on salads, meat or oily fish dishes. Hyssop fresh leaves are served with soft cheeses like goat cheese or cottage cheese. People mix a few drops of hyssop oil into a smoothie. The oil of hyssop seeds exhibits antimicrobial properties. Hyssop leaves were used for sprinkling in ancient Jewish rites of purification.

By World of Spices

33. Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis)

Arabic : Arar
Chinese : Du song
Czech : Jalovec
Dutch : Jeneverbes
French : Genevrier
German : Wacholder
Hindi : Aaraar
Italian : Ginepro
Sanskrit : Hapusha
Spanish : Enebro/Junipero

Juniper Berry (or female seed cone) is fleshy berry like fruit that gives clean, resinous smell. Juniper Berry is small ball of bluish black color when fresh and dark purple when ripe. Juniper is used to flavor recipes like cake, syrup, jam, pancakes, dishes, pie, and marshmallow. Juniper Berry is used in Europe to prepare alcoholic beverages. Juniper oil is used to flavor liquors and cordial. Juniper Berries are also used in face wash, gin etc.

By World of Spices

34. Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix)

Arabic: allaymun alkafiriu
Chinese: Fēizhōu hēirén shíhuī
Dutch: Kaffir limoen
French: Citron vert kaffir
German: Kaffernlimette
Hindi: Thai Neembu
Japanese: Kafiaraimu
Portuguese: Kaffir lima
Russian: Kaffir laym
Spanish: Lima Kaffir
Swedish: Kaffir lime
Thai: Makrūd

Kaffir lime is a citrus tree from South East Asia whose leaves and fruit are used for citrus flavor in culinary. It is also called Makrut Lime, Thai Lime or Mauritius Papeda. Its juice, rind and crushed leaves release an intense citrus fragrance. Kaffir Lime leaves are Asian version of Bay Leaves and added to Thai or Indonesian curries, soups, and stir-fries. Kaffir lime juice is used in many recipes. Kaffir lime juice has become popular all over the world as acids present in help to reduce the chances of marks and scars.

35. Kashmiri Red Chilli (Capsicum species)

Arabic : Filfil Ahmar
Bengali : Lanka, Lankamorich
British : Chillies(Hot) Pepper(Sweet)
Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao
Dutch : Spaanse Peper
French : Puvre de Guinee
German : Paprika
Gujarati : Marcha
Hindi : Lal mirch
Italian : Peperone
Japanese : Togarashi
Kannada : Mensina kai
Malayalam : Mulaku
Marathi : Mirchi
Oriya : Lanka
Portuguese : Pimento
Punjabi : Lalmirch
Russian : Struchkovy pyeret
Spanish : Pimenton
Tamil : Milagay
Telugu : Mirapa kaya
Urdu : Lalmirch

Kashmiri Red Chilli is a chilli that is deep red, long, fleshy and mild taste. It is cultivated in Kashmir and region around it for benefits of more color and less heat. Kashmiri Red Chilli powder is mostly used for tandoori dishes as the roasted Kashmiri Red Chilli has a very pleasant aroma. Kashmiri Red Chilli is used to enrich the red color in a recipe by getting absorbed in oil and surface of meat. It is often used in Biryani, rice and curries.

36. Kokam (Garcinia indica)

Bengali : Kokam
English : Indian Tallow tree/Garcinia
French : Brindonnier
Gujarati : Kokan
Hindi : Kokam
Japanese : Garushinia
Kannada : Murgala
Malayalam : Punampulli
Marathi : Amsol, Katambi, Kokam, Ratamba
Punjabi : Kokam
Tamil : Murgal

The rind and juice of ripened Kokam fruit is used in curries. The dried and salted rind is used as a condiment as well as to prepare red, pleasant flavored cooling syrup. It is used as garnish and to give an acid flavor to curries. Kokam butter is nutritive, demulcent and antiseptic. Kokam is found in the Western Ghats in India and in the Andaman Nicobar Islands. Kokam has special place is Ayurveda by the name of Vrikshamla.

37. Lemon (Citrus × limon)

Arabic: limun
Bengali: Lēbu
Chinese: Níngméng
Dutch: citroen
French: citron
German: Zitrone
Gujarati: Līmbu
Hindi: Neembu
Italian: Limone
Japanese: Remon
Kannada: Nimbe
Malayalam: ceṟunāraṅṅa
Marathi: Limbū
Portuguese: limão
Punjabi: Nibū
Russian: limon
Spanish: limón
Swedish: citron
Tamil: Elumiccai
Telugu: Nim’makāya
Thai: Manāw

Lemon is a citrus tree whose round yellow golf ball size fruits are used for citrus flavor. Lemon is native to south Asia. Lemon is a key ingredient in drinks like lemonade, lemon water with honey and foods like lemon rice, lemon meringue pie. Lemon pickle is famous for its taste and values. Lemon is an excellent source of vitamin C and antioxidants and provides immune-boosting, antibacterial, and antiviral qualities. It benefits skin, weight loss and digestion.

38. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus)

Arabic: eashab allaymun
Bengali: Lēbu ghāsa
Chinese: Níngméng cǎo
Dutch: citroengras
French: Citronnelle
German: Zitronengras
Gujarati: Līmbu ghāsa
Hindi: Neebu Ghas
Italian: citronella
Japanese: Remongurasu
Kannada: Nimbe hullu
Malayalam: nāraṅṅa pull
Marathi: Gavatī cahā
Portuguese: capim-limão
Punjabi: Nibū ghāha
Russian: limonnaya trava
Spanish: La hierba de limón
Swedish: citrongräs
Tamil: Elumiccai pul
Telugu: Nim’ma gaḍḍi
Thai: Takhịr̂

Lemongrass is an herb which is long thick grass used especially in Southeast Asian meals for a lemon flavor. Lemongrass is also called fever grass and ginger grass. Lemongrass is available in many forms- fresh, dried, tea, oil and food supplement. Lemon grass tastes good in soups, tea and food and is said to provide skin benefits.

39. Lovage (Levisticum officinale)

Dutch : Lavas French : Liveche
English : Love Parsley,Lovage
German : Liebstockl
Greek : Levistika
Italian : Levistico
Russian : Lyubistockl
Thai : Kot cheyng

It is a plant whose leaves and stem are used in Europe as a herb or as a vegetable and seeds are used as spice especially in south Europe. The roots, seeds and leaves are used for flavoring foods. Flowering tops yield volatile oil. The leaves and stems are blanched and eaten as salads. In medicine it is used as a liver tonic and is used against bladder inflammation.

40. Mace (Myristica fragrans)

Arabic : Jouza at-Teeb
Bengali : Jaiphal
Chinese : Dou kou shu
Dutch : Nootmuskaat
French : Muscade
German : Muskatnu
Greek : Moschokarido
Gujarati : Jaiphal
Hindi : Jaiphal
Indonesia : Pala
Italian : Noce moscata
Kannada : Jayikai
Kashmiri : Zaaphal
Malayalam : Jathikka
Marathi : Jaiphal
Oriya : Jaiphala
Punjabi : Jaiphal
Sanskrit : Jatiphala
Spanish : Moscada
Tamil : Jathikai
Telugu : Jajikai
Urdu : Jaiphal

Mace is a spice referring to the crushed shell of nutmeg and is a bit costly. People look for substitute of Mace in allspice, cinnamon and ginger. Mace is grown mostly in southwest Asia but consumed all over the world for both savory and sweet recipes. In Northern Europe, mace is used in hearty vegetable dishes, cream sauces and sausages. Mace is also used in fruits, white-fleshed fish, chicken, lighter dairy applications, pork and cookies.

41. Marjoram (Origanum majorana)

Bengali : Murru, Deccan, Muruva
Czech : Majoranka
Dutch : Marjolein
French : Marjolain
German : Marjoran
Greek : Matzourana
Hindi : Marwa, kuthara
Italian : Maggiorana
Japanese : Majoramu
Kannada : Maruga, Kumaon bantulsi
Malayalam : Maruva
Punjabi : Marwa
Sanskrit : Maru, Sinshi, Murwo
Tamil : Maruvu
Urdu : Marva khusha

Marjoram is an herb whose leaves are used in culinary for sweet, floral, lightly spiced fragrance. Marjoram is very similar to Oregano but has milder taste. Marjoram is grown in the Mediterranean, North Africa, and Western Asia. Marjoram is often used to garnish salads, soups, and meat recipes. It is available in various forms such as fresh or dried marjoram leaves, marjoram powder and marjoram essential oil.

42. Menthol (Formula: C10H20O)

Arabic: almanthul
Bengali: Minthala
Chinese: Bòhé nǎo
Dutch: Menthol
French: Menthol
German: Menthol
Hindi: Pudine ka Sat
Italian: Menthol
Japanese: Mentōru
Kannada: Menthāl
Malayalam: mentēāḷ
Marathi: Pudine ka Sat
Portuguese: Mentol
Punjabi: Pudine da Sat
Russian: Mentol
Spanish: Mentol
Swedish: Mentol
Tamil: Menthol
Telugu: Menthol

Menthol smells and tastes like mint and is obtained from the oils of corn mint, peppermint, or other mints. Menthol is also called peppermint camphor. Menthol crystal is clear or white in color and gives cooling sensation. Menthol is added to many daily products like candy, syrups, creams, ointments, nasal sprays, powders and pills for its benefits of cooling taste and smell.

43. Mint (Mentha)


Arabic : Eqama
Bengali : Pudina
Chinese : Pak hom ho
Dutch : Pepermunt
French : Meuthe anglaise
German : Pfefferminze
Greek : Menta
Gujarati : Pudina
Hindi : Pudina
Italian : Menta peperina
Kashmiri : Pudyanu
Malayalam : Puthina
Marathi : Pudina
Punjabi : Pudina
Spanish : Menta/ Piperita
Tamil : Pudina
Telugu : Pudina
Turkish : Nane
Urdu : Pudina

Mint is an herb that grows close to the ground, with green leaves and has a strong fresh smell. Mint family has multiple species variant in taste and smell. Mint has sweet taste, produces a lingering cool sensation, and helps to reduce sodium and sugar intake. The fresh mint leaves have more flavor and scent as compare to dried mint leaves. Rich in nutrients, Mint benefits digestion, brain, cold and breathe.

44. Mustard (brown) (Brassica juncea)

Arabic : Khardal
Chinese : Chieh
Dutch : Mosterd
French : Moutarde
German : Senfsaat
Gujarati : Rai
Hindi : Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson
Italian : Senape
Japanese : Shiro Karashi
Kannada : Sasave
Kashmiri : Aasur, Sorisa
Malayalam : Kaduku
Portuguese : Mostarda
Punjabi : Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson
Russian : Gorchitsa
Sanskrit : Asuri, Bimbata
Spanish : Mostaza
Swedish : Senap
Tamil : Kadugo
Telugu : Avalu
Urdu : Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson

A spice referring to very small ball shaped seeds of a small height plant with yellow flowers. The usual mustard is brown or dark in color. There are many varieties of mustard and major ones besides brown mustard are Black mustard (Brassica nigra) and White/Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). It is very commonly used in south Indian cooking. Its oil is well used across the world. Its leaves are used like spinach to make main course in North India. Mustard sauce or condiment is used commonly across Europe and Americas especially with meat.

45. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)

Arabic : Jouza at-Teeb
Bengali : Jaiphal
Chinese : Dou kou shu
Dutch : Nootmuskaat
French : Muscade
German : Muskatnu
Greek : Moschokarido
Gujarati : Jaiphal
Hindi : Jaiphal
Indonesia : Pala
Italian : Noce moscata
Kannada : Jayikai
Kashmiri : Zaaphal
Malayalam : Jathikka
Marathi : Jaiphal
Oriya : Jaiphala
Punjabi : Jaiphal
Sanskrit : Jatiphala
Spanish : Moscada
Tamil : Jathikai
Telugu : Jajikai
Urdu : Jaiphal

Nutmeg is a popular spice referring to a hard seed of a tropical tree. Nutmeg powder is called Mace which is a bit costly. It is grown mostly in southwest Asia but consumed all over the world both savory and sweet recipes. A pinch of Nutmeg is used in sauces, fruits, custards, punches, curries, pasta and hearty vegetables. Nutmeg is one of the key ingredients in garam masala. Nutmeg has numerous health benefits related to brain function, insomnia, digestion, men’s health and pain.

46. Oregano (Origanum vulgare)

Arabic : Anrar
Czech : Oregano
French : Origan
German : Oregano
Greek : Origanon
Hindi : Sathra, Mirzanjosh
Italian : Origano
Malayalam : Kattumaruva
Punjabi : Mirzanjosha
Spanish : Oregano
Thai : Origano
Urdu : Mirzanjosha

Oregano is a popular and widely used herb whose leaves are used in salads and cooking. Fresh, dried or powder oregano is used for pungent aroma and strong flavor to a variety of savory foods, although fresh crushed oregano leaves have more aroma. Oregano is well known for its use in pizza, pasta sauce, and seasoning. Oregano when balanced with onion, garlic, basil, parsley, thyme and olive oil makes a good recipes.

47. Paprika (Capsicum annuum)

Arabic : Filfil Ahmar
Bengali : Lanka, Lankamorich
British : Chillies(Hot) Pepper(Sweet)
Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao
Dutch : Spaanse Peper
French : Puvre de Guinee
German : Paprika
Gujarati : Marcha
Hindi : Lal mirch
Italian : Peperone
Japanese : Togarashi
Kannada : Mensina kai
Malayalam : Mulaku
Marathi : Mirchi
Oriya : Lanka
Portuguese : Pimento
Punjabi : Lalmirch
Russian : Struchkovy pyeret
Spanish : Pimenton
Tamil : Milagay
Telugu : Mirapa kaya
Urdu : Lalmirch

Paprika is a spice from red peppers or capsicum of sweeter variety and it tends to be milder. Paprika originated in Mexico and is available in powdered form for color and to give flavor to the food. Paprika Powder is often made from Kashmiri Mirch which is famous for its flavor. Paprika powder is crushed pulp after discarding most of the seeds. Paprika is used in Indian, Mexican, Thai and continental culinary to garnish, season and color rice, stews, soups, sausages and meats.

Smoked paprika is a Spanish spice made from pimiento peppers that are dried over an oak fire smoke and then grounded.

48. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)

Arabic :Baqdounis
Chinese :Xiang cai
Dutch :Peterselie
French :Persil
German :Petersil
Greek :Petroselinon
Hindi :Ajmood
Italian :Prezzemolo
Japanese :Paseri
Kannada :Achu-Mooda
Malayalam :Seema malli

Parsley is an herb with curly leaves, which in Greek means “rock celery”. Parsley is one of the world’s most popular herb and can be grown in kitchen garden. Parsley is used in culinary to give fresh flavor to cooking or to garnish. People drink Parsley juice for its impressive health benefits. It is one of the four major spices in France. Parsley is considered to benefit blood pressure, allergies and inflammatory diseases.

49. Pepper Long (Piper longum)

Assamese : Piplu, Pipal
Bengali : Piplamore (root), Pipli
Chinese : Bat but
Czech : Pepr dlouhy
Dutch : Langwerpige peper
French : Poivre long
German : Langer peper
Gujarati : Pipli
Hindi : Pipli
Italian : Pepe lungo
Kannada : Hippali, Hippalibali, Kuna
Malayalam : Tippali
Marathi : Pimpli
Oriya : Pippoli
Punjabi : Piplamul (root)
Sanskrit : Pippali
Sindhii : Pippli
Tamil : Tippili, Sirimulam
Telugu : Tippili, Pippuloo
Urdu : Pipul

Pepper Long is spice mostly referred by its scientific name Piper Longum, Pepper long is the dried fruit of dark, thin, small cylindrical shape with aroma. It is used in Indian garam masala, pickles and preserves. Piper Longum seeds are available in small packaging of 10 or so. Piper longum fruits and roots have medicinal value like asthma, hair health, indigestion.

50. Peppercorns (Piper nigrum)

Arabic : Filfil Aswad
Bengali Kala morich, golmorich
Chinese : Hu-Chiao
Dutch : Peper
French : Poivre
German : Pfeffer
Gujarati Kalamari, kalomirich
Hindi Kali mirch
Italian : Pepe
Japanese : Kosha
Kannada Kare menasu
Kashmiri Marutis
Malayalam Kurumulaku, nallamulaku
Marathi Mira, kali mirch
Oriya Gol maricha
Portuguese : Pimenta
Punjabi Kali mirch
Russian : Pyerets
Sanskrit Marich ushna, hapusha
Spanish : Pimienta
Swedish : Peppar
Tamil Milagu
Telugu Miriyala tige
Urdu Kali mirch, Siah mirch

Peppercorn is the whole “seed” (i.e. fruit) of pepper plant. Peppercorn is black small round ball which has strong taste. Peppercorn is also available in variety of colors like white, green, red etc. making almost a spectrum of rainbow. People use clear peppercorn crushers on dining tables to enjoy the colors of peppercorns. Peppercorn has special place in culinary as it can be used in almost any savory dish, and in medicine.

51. Pepper or pepper powder (Piper nigrum)

Arabic : Filfil Aswad
Bengali Kala morich, golmorich
Chinese : Hu-Chiao
Dutch : Peper
French : Poivre
German : Pfeffer
Gujarati Kalamari, kalomirich
Hindi Kali mirch
Italian : Pepe
Japanese : Kosha
Kannada Kare menasu
Kashmiri Marutis
Malayalam Kurumulaku, nallamulaku
Marathi Mira, kali mirch
Oriya Gol maricha
Portuguese : Pimenta
Punjabi Kali mirch
Russian : Pyerets
Sanskrit Marich ushna, hapusha
Spanish : Pimienta
Swedish : Peppar
Tamil Milagu
Telugu Miriyala tige
Urdu Kali mirch, Siah mirch

Pepper powder is a spice and is powdered form of peppercorn, a black or white small round balls, used to add strong taste to the food. Pepper has special place in culinary as it can be used in almost any savory dish. Pungent smell, hot taste and health benefits make pepper a popular spice worldwide and a favorite ingredient of worldwide cuisines. A pinch of black pepper powder with a little honey is considered a home remedy for sore throat.

52. Pomegranate Seed (Punica Granatum)

Assamese : Dalim
Bengali : Dalimb
Czech : Granatounik
Dutch : Granaatappel
French : Grenade
German : Granatapfel
Greek : Rodia
Gujarati : Dalamb, Dadam
Hindi : Anardana
Italian : Melograno
Japanese : Zakuro
Kannada : Dalimbari
Kashmiri : Daan
Malayalam : Maathalanarakam
Marathi : Dalimb
Oriya : Dalima
Punjabi : Anardana
Sanskrit : Dadima
Spanish : Granada
Swedish : Granatapple
Tamil : Mathalam pazham
Telugu : Danimma pandu
Urdu : Anardana

The dried seeds of pomegranate with pulp are used as a spice to give sour flavor to curries. The juice, rind, pulp and seeds of Pomegranate are healthy, nutritional and medicinal. Pomegranates can have anti-inflammatory effects and can fight type-2 diabetes and obesity. Regular consumption of pomegranate improves gut health, digestion, men’s health and women’s health.

53. Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum)

Arabic : Khashkhash
Bengali : Kashash
Chinese : Ying Shu
Dutch : Slaapbol
French : Pavot
German : Mohn
Gujarati : Khuskhush
Hindi : Kashash
Italian : Papavero
Japanese : Keshi
Kannada : Khasksi
Malayalam : Kashakasha
Marathi : Khus khus
Portuguese : Dormideira
Punjabi : Khush khush, Khas
Russian : Mak
Sanskrit : Khasa, Khakasa
Spanish : Adermidera
Swedish : Opiumvallmo
Tamil : Gaehagesha kasakasa
Telugu : Kasakasa, Gasagasla, Gasalu
Urdu : Kashkash sufaid

Poppy seed is highly nutritive, very small round ball is used as food, supporting ingredient and a source of fatty oil. You can make curries, sweets, breads, cakes, cookies, pastries, and confectionery. Poppy seeds are used against constipation, coughing and sleeplessness.

54. Rock salt or Halite (NaCl)

Arabic: almulihu alsakhriu
Dutch: steen zout
French: sel gemme
German: Steinsalz
Hindi: sendha namak
Italian: salgemma
Japanese: Gan’en
Portuguese: sal-gema
Russian: kamennaya sol’
Spanish: sal de roca
Swedish: bergsalt

Rock salt is a mineral. Contrary to sea salt, rock salt is found in rocks and is a little pink in colored when in rock form. It is grounded in powder and is used in cooking like sea salt. The only thing is that it is considered more nutritious as compared to sea salt.

55. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis or latest: Salvia rosmarinus)

Arabic : ikleel alt-jabeel
Bengali : Rosemary
Chinese : Midie xiang
Czech : Rozmaryna
Dutch : Rosemarijin
French : Romarin
German : Rosmarin
Hindi : Rusmari
Japanese : Rozumari
Sanskrit : Rusmari
Spanish : Romero
Thai : Rosmari

It’s a bush native to Mediterranean region with narrow leaves and flowers in various colors. It is used in gardens. Its fresh or dried leaves are used in cooking for a strong pleasant smell and taste. Its oil is used for fragrance or medicine. Its sprigs are worn on ANZAC Day in Australia.

56. Saffron (Crocus sativus)

Arabic : Zafran
Bengali : Jafran
Chinese : Fan Hung-Hua
Dutch : Saffraan
French : Safran
German : Safran
Gujarati : Keshar
Hindi : Kesar
Italian : Zafferano
Japanese : Safuran
Kannada : Kumnkuma kesari
Kashmiri : Kong
Malayalam : Kunkumapoove
Marathi : Keshar, Kesara
Portuguese : Acofrao
Punjabi : Kesar, Zafran
Russian : Shafran
Sanskrit : Keshara, Kunkuma, Aruna, Asra, Asrika
Spanish : Azafran
Swedish : Saffran
Tamil : Kungumapoo
Urdu : Zafran

Saffron is a spice referring to stigma and style part of the flower of this plant. It is an orange dried thread-like structure used for aroma, flavor and color in food, medicine, festivals, celebrations, religious rituals etc. The dishes and sweets become special when saffron is used in them. Some of the recipes include biryani, saffron rice, saffron sweets, etc. Medically saffron may improve mood, reduce depression, aid weight loss to name a few.

57. Sage (Salvia officinalis)

Arabic : Mayameeah
Bengali :Bui tulasi
Chineese : Shu wei cao
Czech :Salvej
Dutch :Salie
French :Sauge
German :Salbei
Hindi : Salvia, Sefakus
Italian :Salvia
Malayalam : Salvi tulasi
Panjabi :Sathi
Spanish :Salvia

Sage herb is also known as common sage and normal sage is native to Mediterranean region. Sage herb is used fresh, dried or in oil form. Sage herb flavors cooking of stuffings, polenta, bean dishes, tomato sauces, pesto, omelets and chicken risotto. Sage butter is used in pasta and trout. Romans use this “holy sage” in religious rituals. It is said to improve brain health and memory.

58. Salt (Scientific: NaCl)

Arabic: milh
Dutch: zout
French: sel
German: Salz
Hindi: namak
Italian: sale
Japanese: Shio
Portuguese: sal
Russian: povarennaya sol’
Spanish: sal
Swedish: Salt

A mineral white in color is often added to food to improve its flavor. Salt is extracted from sea water or from rocks. The human body can not live without salt or sodium that is part of salt.

59. Sea salt (Scientific: NaCl)

Arabic: milh albahr
Dutch: Zeezout
French: Sel de mer
German: Meersalz
Hindi: Samundri Namak
Italian: Sale marino
Japanese: Kaien
Portuguese: Sal marinho
Russian: Morskaya sol’
Spanish: Sal marina
Swedish: Havssalt

Salt that is produced from sea water is called sea salt. The human body can not live without salt or sodium that is part of salt. Salt has long been used for flavoring and for preserving food.

60. Sorrel (Rumex species)

Arabic: hamid
Dutch: Zuring
French: Oseille
German: Sauerampfer
Hindi: Sorrel
Italian: Acetosa
Japanese: Kuriiro
Portuguese: alazão
Russian: shchavel’
Spanish: alazana
Swedish: ängssyra

Sorrel is a herb, it resembles spinach and has names like spinach dock and narrow-leaved dock. Sorrel leaves are a little sour in taste and are used to make a variety of recipes of soups, salads, sauce and curries in different parts of the world. It can be a kitchen garden herb.

61. Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

Arabic: naenae
Dutch: groene munt
French: menthe verte
German: grüne Minze
Hindi: Paharhi Pudina
Italian: menta verde
Japanese: Supeaminto
Portuguese: hortelã
Russian: myata
Spanish: menta verde
Swedish: grönmynta

Spearmint is one of the two major types of mint and this herb is often used in cooking. Spearmint leaves have flavorful sweet taste, mellow aroma and lingering cool sensation. Spearmint leaves are used in sweets, chutney and dressings among other food items. Spearmint may benefit to reduce sodium and sugar intake. Rich in nutrients, spearmint benefits digestion, brain, cold and breathe.

62. Star anise (Illicium verum)

Chinese : Ba jiao
Czech : Badyan
Dutch : Steranijs
French : Anis de la chine
German : Sternanis
Hindi : Anasphal, chakr phool
Indonesia : Bunga lawang
Italian : Anice stellato
Malayalam : Takkolam
Marathi : Badian
Nepali : Star phul
Oriya : Anasphul
Russian : Badyan
Spanish : Badian
Tamil : Anashuppu
Telugu : Anaspuvu
Urdu : Badyani

Star Anise is fruit spice in shape of a star about 1 inch big in dark brown color. It smells like Anise or Fennel and hence the name. Star Anise is used as whole or grounded in Asian cuisines, Indian cuisines and recently in west cuisines. Star Anise is part of Masala tea and it told to benefits drive, digestion, respiration, etc. Fragrant Star Anise oil is used in culinary, perfumery, mouth hygiene products, soaps and skin creams.

63. Sumac (Rhus coriaria)

Arabic: alsamaq
Dutch: Sumac
French: Sumac
German: Sumach
Hindi: Sumac, Summak
Italian: Sommacco
Japanese: Shumakku
Portuguese: Sumac
Russian: Sumakh
Spanish: Zumaque
Swedish: Sumak

Sumac is a spice made from the fruits of Sumac tree and is also called Syrian Sumac. Sumac is readily used in Middle Eastern cuisine. Before the Romans learned of lemons, they used sumac for its sour and pleasantly astringent taste. Select Sumac berries are dried and grounded into a coarse powder before using in culinary. Like lemon, Sumac gives a captivating and exotic transformation to salad dressings, rice, meats, kabab, fish, poultry and vegetable dishes.

64. Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus)

Assamese : Themeprii
Bengali : Bach
English : Sweet flag,calamus root,german ginger
Gujarati : Gandhilovaj, Godavaj, Vekhand
Hindi : Bach, Gorabach, Vacha
Kannada : Baje,Bajegda
Kashmiri : Vabi
Malayalam : Vayampe
Marathi : Vekhand, Bariboj, Wach
Punjabi : Bacha
Sanskrit : Bhadra, Bulami,vacha
Tamil : Vashambu
Telugu : Vadaja, Vasa
Urdu : Bacha

Sweet Flag is a semi aquatic herb with erect, sword shaped, flattened, smooth along the margins, and parallel vein leaves of about 1 meter tall. The entire plant has a spicy, lemon fragrance. Sweet Flag is mainly used in medicine, perfumery and insecticidal. Its Ayurvedic names are ‎Vacha, Ugargandha, Chhad. Europeans were used it to clean drinking water or make mats using scented Sweet Flag.

65. Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)

Arabic : Tarkhun
Chinese : Long hao
Czech : Estragon
Dutch : Dragon
French : Estragon
German : Estragon
Greek : Tarchon
Hindi: Naagadauna
Italian : Estragon
Russian : Estragon
Spanish : Estragon
Swedish : Dragon
Thai : Taeragon

Tarragon is an herb whose narrow leaves are used in culinary. Tarragon leaves is used across much of Eurasia and North America. It is one of the four major spices in France and also called French Tarragon or estragon. Tarragon has a bittersweet taste and aroma. Tarragon is used often in French recipes including chicken, steak, salmon, fish, shortcake, and lemonade.

66. Tabasco (Capsicum frutescence)

Arabic : Filfil Ahmar
Bengali : Lanka, Lankamorich
British : Chillies(Hot) Pepper(Sweet)
Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao
Dutch : Spaanse Peper
French : Puvre de Guinee
German : Paprika
Gujarati : Marcha
Hindi : Lal mirch
Italian : Peperone
Japanese : Togarashi
Kannada : Mensina kai
Malayalam : Mulaku
Marathi : Mirchi
Oriya : Lanka
Portuguese : Pimento
Punjabi : Lalmirch
Russian : Struchkovy pyeret
Spanish : Pimenton
Tamil : Milagay
Telugu : Mirapa kaya
Urdu : Lalmirch

It is a perennial chilly with small sized pods which are highly pungent. It is commonly known as ‘bird chilly’ and ‘Tabasco’. Bird chilly is used in making hot sauces as pepper sauce and Tabsco sauce.

67. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.)

Arabic : Tamr al-hindi
Assamese : Teteli
Bengali : Tentul
Burmese : Ma-gyi-thi
Chinese : Da ma lin
Czech : Tamarind
Dutch : Tamarinde
French : Tamarin
German : Tamarinde
Gujarati : Amli
Hindi : Imli
Italian : Tamarindo
Japanese : Tamarindo
Kannada : Huli
Kashmiri : Tambari
Malayalam : Puli,Valanpuli
Oriya : Dalima
Punjabi : Imli
Sanskrit : Tintiri,Amli
Spanish : Tamarindo
Tamil : Puli
Telugu : Chintapandu

The ripe pulpy pod-like fruit of tamarind tree is used in numerous culinary preparations to give sour taste. Tamarind paste is available in packaged form, along with whole or pitted tamarind fruits. Tamarind recipes are common in north Indian, south Indian and Mexico cuisines. Tamarind is used to prepare beverages, confectionary, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical. It is used in textile, dyeing and tanning industry. It is suppose to benefit weight loss, nerve function, blood pressure, eyes, anti-diabetic, and skin.

68. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

Chinese : Bai li xiang
Czech : Thymian
Dutch : Tijn
French : Thyme
German : Thymian
Hindi : Banajwain
Indonesian : Timi
Italian : Timo
Japanese : Taimu
Malayalam : Thottathulasi
Punjabi : Marizha, Masho, Rangsbur
Spanish : Tomillo
Urdu : Hasha

Thyme is an herb with very small leaves. Fresh or dried aerial parts as well as Thyme oil are used in culinary and medicine. This popular herb is quite popular in Europe, especially the Mediterranean region. It is used in from pasta, dinners, cocktails and desserts. Thyme is suppose to arrest gastric trouble, strengthen lungs, relieve cough, heal acne etc.

69. Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

Arabic : Kurkum
Bengali : Halud, Pitras
Chinese : Yu.Chin
Dutch : Geelwortel
French : Curcuma
German : Kurkuma Gelbwurzel
Gujarati : Haldhar, Haldi
Hindi : Haldi
Italian : Curcuma
Japanese : Ukon
Kannada : Arishia
Konkani : Halad
Malayalam : Manjal
Marathi : Halede, Halad
Oriya : Haldil
Portuguese : Acafrao-da-India
Punjabi : Haldar, Haldhar, Haldi
Russian : Zholty Imbir
Sanskrit : Haladi, Harita
Spanish : Curcuma
Swedish : Gurkmeja
Tamil : Manjal
Telugu : Pasupu
Urdu : Haladi

This spice is the underground stem or rootstalk part of the plant. It is similar to ginger when fresh but with little orange matter. When dried and crushed, it gives a yellow powder which is used readily in cooking, especially curry. It is supposed of have medicinal values like increasing immunity etc.

70. Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. tahitensis)

Arabic : Wanilla
Chinese : Hsiang – Tsao
Dutch : Vanille
French : Vanille
German : Vanille
Italian : Vaniglia
Japanese : Banira
Portuguese : Baunilia
Russian : Vanil
Spanish : Vainilla
Swedish : Vanilj

Vanilla is an extract from beans of a tropical plant. It is used to add fragrance and flavor to some sweet foods like cakes, shakes and ice creams. Vanilla in recipes reduces the requirement of sugar needed for sweetening. Vanilla is told to treat intestinal gas, drive and fever.

Conclusion:

Because of your smile, you make life more beautiful. -Thich Nhat Hanh

Fresh herbs make recipes taste even better and are great to have around for soups, stews, and salads. You can have a kitchen garden to grow some of the herbs like parsley, mint, dill, basil, sage, rosemary to name a few.

Spices are gathered from around the world and are grown with great skills. It is a little difficult to grow them in kitchen yard and should be sources from outside.

Quality spices are needed to make authentic and aromatic dishes so one must ensure that spices are collected from high quality suppliers.

Herbs and spices are supposed to provide many health benefits. When added in small quantities in food, they not just give the taste and aroma but also health benefits. Numerous recipes are available for each herb and each spice from worldwide cuisines.

Many herbs and spices have commercial applications other than culinary and medicine. Almost all of them provide health benefits to various parts or functions of human body. As David Hume said, “Beauty in things exists in the mind which contemplates them.”

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